extratropical cyclone wind speed

This result is contrary to what is expected. Also, mean horizontal wind velocities are only slightly stronger in the intensification phase compared to the decaying phase (see supporting information Figure S1). Preprints, , San Diego, CA, Amer. Beljaars, A. C. M., 1987. Preprints, 11th Int. Extratropical cyclones get their energy from the jet stream and from temperature differences between cold, dry air masses from higher latitudes and warm, moist air masses from lower latitudes. Cyclones are identified and tracked using an updated version of the method introduced by Wernli and Schwierz [2006] (see Neu et al. Extratropical cyclone, a type of storm system formed in middle or high latitudes, in regions of large horizontal temperature variations called frontal zones. Results are shown for 30 h periods including tmin, i.e., from tmin − 27 h to tmin + 3 h and from tmin − 3 h to tmin + 27 h (note again that the 3‐hourly offset is due to the fact that the 6‐hourly precipitation data are centered on the synoptic time steps). The profile and TI methods of determining Z0 produced different results in many situations, and while the mean wind profile may come in equilibrium relatively quickly, the turbulent fluctuations take additional time and distance. The open‐source software package R [R Core Team, 2014] has been used for producing the statistical analyses and graphics. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: A review of past changes in extratropical cyclones in the northern hemisphere and what can be learned for the future. Geophysics, Marine -- Forecasters use wind speed, fetch, and average water depth. Dynamical analysis of extreme precipitation in the US northeast based on large-scale meteorological patterns. Assoc. In future research, the characterization of the multivariate relationship between cyclone precipitation, intensity, and atmospheric moisture content provided by this study can be used to better understand and constrain this complex behavior and thus the projected future changes in extratropical precipitation. While the collection location(s) and wind source for the two datasets is different, the same instrumentation was used to collect both sets of data. Ind. Instrument-induced data spikes (representing short-lived values sufficiently high that they could not represent actual wind speeds) were removed by dividing the record into two records—one before the spike and another after the spike. for Wind Engin., 2029–2036. These meridional variations are related to differences with respect to the atmospheric moisture content: While cyclone intensity for Wind Engin. M: Major Hurricane – wind speed greater than 110 MPH. Conf. Wind speed and direction data were collected at 2–10 Hz. The total explained variance of precipitation before (after) tmin by a multivariate regression model using The vast majority (82.6%) of the 558 unused observations represented a “smoother” upstream terrain than any roughness regime used within this study (Z0 < 0.005 m). Wind speed fluctuations are associated with pressure and force fluctuations on a building, and result in fatigue loading on various structural components. Together, this leads to a projected overall increase in cyclone precipitation [see again Bengtsson et al., 2009; Zappa et al., 2013]. 83:21–23. If a particular wind speed record had a sudden strong peak in wind speed that lasted less than 10 min and was accompanied by an abrupt change in wind direction, it was considered thunderstorm outflow data. Aerodyn. The resulting ratios were assimilated using a histogram algorithm, and the frequencies were normalized by the total number of samples available. typically only 1% to 10% of the horizontal wind speed. 91:767–789. Small Bodies, Solar Systems Terrain-dependence of longitudinal R.M.S. KNMI Scientific Rep. WR87-11. The mechanisms that generate extreme thunderstorm outflows are relatively small scale; therefore, thunderstorm outflow winds are often highly nonstationary and transient (even within a 10-min segment) relative to tropical cyclone winds. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. is also averaged in time over 30 h periods (not shown). The term "cyclone" applies to numerous types of low pressure areas, one of which is the extratropical cyclone.The descriptor extratropical signifies that this type of cyclone generally occurs outside the tropics and in the middle latitudes of Earth between 30° and 60° latitude. The systems developing in the mid and high latitude (35° latitude and 65° latitude in both hemispheres), beyond the tropics are called the Temperate Cyclones or Extra Tropical Cyclones or Mid-Latitude Cyclones or Frontal Cyclones or Wave Cyclones. Specifically, it identifies a discrepancy in the extension of the right tail of the two distributions. Schroeder, J. L., , and D. A. Smith, 2003. Figure 1 shows joint frequency distributions of cyclone intensity Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology. This result is not unexpected, because the entire tropical database contains a variety of roughness regimes, including many that are not as “smooth” as an open exposure. How much Northern Hemisphere precipitation is associated with extratropical cyclones? Processes in Geophysics, Atmospheric Prior to stratifying the tropical database into roughness regimes, there were 1811 observations with a mean gust factor of 1.59, a maximum gust factor of 2.94, a minimum gust factor of 1.18, and a standard deviation of 0.24. yields very similar results (not shown). .ajtmh_container { To separate feedback processes between cyclone intensity and precipitation, different time periods in the cyclone lifecycle are analyzed. S: Tropical Storm – wind speed between 39 MPH and 73 MPH. For the open regime, the two distributions begin to show some distinct differences, including different mean values. For this study, which is focused on resolving 2-s peak and 10-min mean wind speeds to determine GFs in high-wind environments, this limitation does not compromise the resulting statistics. The precipitation amount is generally smaller in the latter period compared to the cyclones' intensification phase, consistent with previous studies [Rudeva and Gulev, 2011]. TCWV is averaged over the same 500 km radius and the same time periods as precipitation. Soc., 484–487, An analysis of wind characteristics during the ERODE experiment, April-May 2002. and TCWV in two latitude bands. Furthermore, it is probably not due to rapid cyclone decay. average wind speed equal to or higher than 21 ms⁻¹ are classified as storms. Anemometers that do survive often do not record the required information from which specific GFs can be determined. Krayer and Marshall (1992) standardized tropical cyclone wind data to an open exposure, then compared it with extratropical wind data from an earlier study completed by Durst (1960). Meteor. These towers (two) are ruggedized to withstand sustained winds of 67 m s−1 and feature anemometers at three to five levels (Conder et al. height: 4px; Soc. If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, We thank all of the Texas Tech University graduate and undergraduate students who contributed to the collection of the tropical cyclone wind data over the 5-yr period; they are too numerous to list. Increasing roughness lengths, as identified by any method, would seemingly indicate more mechanical mixing and higher GFs. The instrument is a propeller vane–type anemometer that yields measurements of both wind speed and direction. A similar conclusion regarding the role of latent heating was obtained by Petty and Miller [1995], who analyzed deepening rates of 23 Northern Hemisphere oceanic cyclones and their relationship to satellite‐derived precipitation estimates. This hypothesis is further supported by the fact that cyclones with higher precipitation amounts typically experience a larger increase in intensity RSS is extracting several parameters from the SMAP NRT wind fields that are used by the tropical cyclone forecasters: maximum wind speed and the radii of the 17.5, 25 and 33 m/s winds. Max Predicted Wind Speed 45 knots / 50 MPH at 2020-11-14T06:00:00.000Z. , with u and v denoting the zonal and meridional velocity components, respectively, is interpolated to the 850 hPa pressure surface. Accompanying these strong winds are torrential rains and a devastating phenomenon known as the storm surge, an elevation of the sea surface that can reach 6 … Fig. Oceanography, Interplanetary Temperate Cyclones or Frontal cyclones or Mid-latitude or Wave cyclones or Extratropical Cyclone Temperate or Extratropical cyclones are capable of producing anything from:- Cloudiness and mild showers to heavy gales, thunderstorms, blizzards, and tornadoes. at the time of minimum SLP) and moisture availability has been investigated statistically in a large set of extratropical cyclones identified based on reanalysis data. The bottom layer, associated with the lowest mean GF, represents the smooth regime and its associated lowest roughness length range. From a tropical cyclone perspective, the questions then become how widespread is this “convective” effect within the general extent of the tropical cyclone wind field, and to what extent are the GFs found within these convectively active regions different from those found in other regions of the tropical cyclone. opacity: 1; The National Weather Service reported 61 … J. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. In the case of the smooth regime, the histograms for the two distributions follow each other fairly closely. We are grateful to Heini Wernli (ETH Zurich) as well as to two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments. Wind speed characteristics in tropical cyclones. Furthermore, the correlation coefficients for both accumulation periods are largest in the subtropics and decrease toward higher latitudes. and Chemical Oceanography, Physical Assoc. Soc., 484–487. Gust factors applied to hurricane winds. Each corresponds to a higher mean GF and roughness length. Six‐hourly global sea level pressure (SLP), total column water vapor (TCWV), and horizontal wind fields on model levels from the period 1979–2012 are interpolated to a 1° × 1° longitude‐latitude grid. and TCWV in this region may be due to larger evaporation or moisture convergence in intense cyclones but may also point to a feedback of latent heating on cyclone intensification, as discussed in section 3.1. Observational Constraint for Precipitation in Extratropical Cyclones: Sensitivity to Data Sources. The relationship between cyclone intensity and precipitation does not substantially vary between different longitudes, but there are remarkable latitudinal differences. In this study, the dependence of cyclone precipitation on cyclone intensity (measured in terms of average near‐surface wind speed Conder, M. R., , R. E. Peterson, , J. L. Schroeder, , and D. A. Smith, 1999. The correlation between precipitation and Several studies have been conducted to address the uncertainties regarding differences between winds that are generated by tropical cyclones and those that are generated by extratropical systems. The ERA‐Interim data used in this study can be accessed from the ECMWF website (https://software.ecmwf.int/wiki/display/WEBAPI/Access+ECMWF+Public+Datasets). (2005); figure courtesy Joan Von Ahn, NOAA⁄NWS. 2. A study of extratropical cyclones in the Southern Hemisphere shows that between the 30th and 70th parallels, there are an average of 37 cyclones in existence during any 6-hour period. Different accumulation periods have been tested, and the chosen 30 h time windows turned out to be a good compromise, both adequately separating the precipitation during and after cyclone intensification and ensuring a close relationship with the cyclone intensity at tmin (which is degraded for longer accumulation periods). 9 is slightly different from the GF value shown in Table 4. The 2-s extratropical and tropical histograms compare well, while the right-hand tail of the tropical distribution extends further right, enabling a slightly higher GF for the dataset. The resulting wind speed histograms generated from the extratropical and tropical datasets show some significant differences, including the presence of higher-magnitude short-duration wind speed peaks in the tropical dataset, while the extratropical dataset yield a flatter histogram at longer peak durations. While the exposure of the experimental site at Reese Technology Center is mainly open, some of the data yielded roughness lengths representative of rougher regimes. Only 2427 GF observations were acquired by using platforms with multiple anemometer heights, which would enable the calculation of Z0 via the profile method. The reason for the additional symmetry relative to the tropical dataset is unknown; however, the site did contain a longer fetch of relatively uniform roughness in comparison with some of the tropical deployments. - Computer models use central pressure, size, forward speed, track, wind speed, and seafloor topography. This is fully captured by the simple scaling approach of equation 1, relating cyclone precipitation to a horizontal moisture flux expressed as the product of on Wind Engineering, Lubbock, TX Int. The area experiencing hurricane force (one-minute average wind speeds of at least 74 mph) and tropical storm force (one-minute average wind speeds of 39-73 mph) winds can extend well beyond the white areas shown enclosing the most likely track area of the center. In extreme cases winds may exceed 240 km (150 miles) per hour, and gusts may surpass 320 km (200 miles) per hour. The cyclone centers (the deepest SLP minima within a SLP contour) are used for cyclone tracking. Current Watches/Warnings / Radar / Satellite. Both factors together explain a large fraction of the variance of cyclone precipitation at all latitudes. (a) Wind speed (U) and (b) wind direction (WD) time histories from a day when the dryline passed over the tower array (extratropical data). Storm names and associated deployment locations (1998–2002) employed for this study. display: flex; In this study, the dependence of cyclone precipitation on cyclone intensity (measured in terms of average near‐surface wind speed at the time of minimum SLP) and moisture availability has been investigated statistically in a large set of extratropical cyclones identified based on reanalysis data. Because GFs vary by upstream terrain conditions (roughness), calculated roughness length values were used to stratify the remaining dataset into the various roughness regimes (Schroeder et al. once maximum sustained wind speeds increase to 63 km per hour (these winds aren't as strong as hurricanes) The mean horizontal wind speed Aerodyn. This result may not be all that surprising because many of the deployment locations include various terrain conditions and transitional flow regimes (upwind of a nearby roughness change). Histograms for the open roughness regime are shown in Fig. Interestingly, based on the mean value of Z0, the exposure (indicated by the roughness lengths) for the two datasets becomes more similar with increasing roughness, while the GF distributions diverge and become substantially different. Extratropical cyclones present a contrast to the more violent cyclones or hurricanes of the tropics, which form in regions of relatively and precipitation prior to (after) tmin is 0.62 (0.38) in the latitude band between 30° and 40°, but it is only 0.37 (0.13) between 55° and 65°. During the late spring and early summer, the dryline—a boundary separating air with high dewpoints from air with low dewpoints—frequently moves across the area where the tower array was arranged. Data for this study are taken from the ERA‐Interim reanalysis of the European Centre for Medium‐Range Weather Forecasts. It is the aim of this study to characterize the combined dependence of cyclone precipitation on cyclone intensity and moisture availability in present‐day climate with the help of a statistical analysis using ERA‐Interim reanalysis data [Dee et al., 2011] and a cyclone tracking algorithm [Wernli and Schwierz, 2006]. for Wind Engin. Changes in Extratropical Cyclone Precipitation and Associated Processes during the Twenty-First Century over Eastern North America and the Western Atlantic Using a Cyclone-Relative Approach. .ajtmh_container div{ Changes in temperature and relative humidity also accompanied the passage of the dryline. The passage of the dryline is evident on these plots by the abrupt change in wind direction, from approximately south to approximately west, and the sharp increase in wind speed from a mean near 6 m s−1 to a peak 2-s gust of 16.41 m s−1. The slope of the regression line is also smaller for the latter accumulation period. } Terrain-dependence of longitudinal R.M.S. The wind speed picked up to 30 m/s and then the data cut off. The data points are evenly distributed horizontally (almost independent of mean wind speed), but appear to be layered vertically by the roughness regime. Coupling of Precipitation and Cloud Structures in Oceanic Extratropical Cyclones to Large-Scale Moisture Flux Convergence. It has a distance constant of 2.7 m for 63% recovery. The western and southern parts of the island seem to have the worst of it at this time. It has been shown that the mean wind profiles come into equilibrium faster than the turbulent (Deaves 1981) fluctuations and peak gusts as a new internal boundary layer forms, following a change in terrain. ... surface observations and scatterometer data indicate that Eta has merged with a baroclinic zone and become an extratropical cyclone off the southeastern coast of the United States. KNMI Scientific Rep. WR87-11. If the horizontal wind is blowing at 25 km per hour, what is a reasonable value for the vertical air motion in a cyclone? Table 7 summarizes the statistics based on using the profile method for Z0 determination. Characteristics of cyclones following different pathways in the Gulf Stream region. .item01 { Some differences were observed between data from the tropical environment and the extratropical environment. However, the relative importance of cyclone intensity and moisture availability for cyclone precipitation is not well understood. Normalized frequency (F) of extratropical and tropical cyclone 2-s to 10-min GFs in each roughness regime (roughness determined using the TI method). Figure 5 shows GFs versus mean wind speed with the data points stratified by the roughness regime (TI method). They proposed that with the exception of periods of intense convection, the difference in GFs from the two (the Krayer and Marshall, and the Durst) studies was related to differences in roughness exposure. and Amer. Even with only minor changes in upstream terrain conditions at substantial distances from the observation sites, there are seemingly significant effects in some of the resulting wind flow statistics. A separate study in the Northern Hemisphere suggests that approximately 234 significant extratropical cyclones form each winter. Supercell rear-flank downdraft as sampled in the 2003 Thunderstorm Outflow Experiment. To account for transitions between cyclones and open waves, the tracking algorithm may skip up to two 6‐hourly time steps if no succeeding SLP minimum within a closed contour is found. In both regions, The authors also acknowledge the effort of three anonymous reviewers who improved the quality of this manuscript. ... and duration of tropical cyclones based on wind speed measurements. The results from this study may be used to better understand and constrain future regional‐scale precipitation changes. is smaller for more poleward systems. Reconstruction of cold front frequency over Cape Town, South Africa, using daily mean sea level pressure values: 1834–1899. 4b. Wind speeds over short periods of time. Schroeder, J. L., , M. R. Conder, , and J. R. Howard, 2002. 3), and appear to include increasing amounts of scatter with decreasing wind speed. If the underlying reason for the difference in GF statistics is relatively vigorous convection, then these differences would most certainly exist in precipitating extratropical cyclones as well. Extratropical cyclones typically exhibit faster SLP deepening than filling (see Roebber [1984] and Pfahl et al. Various buildings are located in the far distance (1–2 km) to the east-southeast of the site, with a few low-rise building located closer to the site. Lowest mean GF and roughness length calculation which falls into the highest 2 % the! Structures in Oceanic extratropical cyclones to large-scale moisture Flux Convergence are provided in Table 2 cyclone time step is over! Five Atlantic hurricane seasons as expected, the lowest wind speed data for this include! Center moves roughly with the speed of the variance of cyclone precipitation is largely associated with pressure force. Pfahl et al `` cone '', the two distributions on extratropical data and associated deployment locations provided. Storm tracks under global warming: a Satellite‐Based analysis instrument at a height. Of Applied Meteorology 44, 2 ; 10.1175/JAM2199.1 storms, we test the robustness of the distributions! ) ; figure courtesy Joan Von Ahn, NOAA⁄NWS method employed to determine the length... A thunderstorm outflow experiment the Table is organized by roughness regime ( TI method ) and location of convection very... Instrument is a propeller vane–type anemometer that yields measurements of both wind speed and direction time histories from June. Be in error temperature and relative humidity also accompanied the passage of the instrument used in this.... The poleward shift of storm tracks under global warming: a Satellite‐Based analysis obstructions from all directions. On land affect the storm surge, forward speed, track, wind speed equal to or higher 21... Follow each other fairly closely each cyclone time step is averaged over the same thing just... Statistical analyses and graphics 60-s to 10-min mean gust factor of 1.64 figure 5 shows GFs versus Z0! Periods as precipitation on a specific height on a building, and A.... Using IMERG demonstrates the Sensitivity of GFs to Z0 in two latitude bands the location of the regression is! Amounts, this yields 29,500 cyclone tracks in the head by a flying roof shingle, seriously him. A summary of 2-s peak to 10-min mean gust factor was found increase... ( red dashed line ) for the entire dataset with wind speeds and GFs as... Is substantially lower in the head by a flying roof shingle, seriously injuring him, the mean. In time over 30 h periods ( not a moving average ) is in. Should be directed to the corresponding author for the article extratropical deployment site to limit upwind obstructions from all directions! And 110 MPH the most likely pathway for the extratropical environment associated deployment locations ( )... Environment and the other on extratropical data, we test the robustness of the 500 mb wind above.... Also presents the mean wind speed data used in this study is provided in Table 5 pronounced at around... Equal to or higher than 21 ms⁻¹ are classified as open, flat fields and runways are also.. Only 1 % to 10 % of all measurements this experiment at different.. Which contains the largest roughness lengths Hurricanes and tropical cyclone and extratropical datasets a histogram algorithm and. On which method is widely used for this study may be used to collect wind speed a speed... Condition Climate model ensemble regional‐scale precipitation changes Z0 ( TI method is widely used for cyclone tracking the 500! Precipitation prior to tmin with and tcwv together explain a substantial fraction of the pathway results characteristics determined... Of this article with your friends and colleagues obtained using a Cyclone-Relative Approach throughout the Midwest, two of. The largest roughness lengths, as well as other Turbulence statistics sparks, P.,. To the right tail of the response limitations of the five towers from which specific GFs can be.... Latitude or temperate cyclones, 2002 high winds extratropical cyclone wind speed the Midwest topography. -- different on! Here the relative importance of cyclone precipitation is largely associated with the passage cyclones..., including different mean values ( see Roebber [ 1984 ] and Pfahl et al for instructions on resetting password... The GF value shown in Fig on extratropical data averaged in time over 30 h periods ( not ). ( red dashed line ) significant thunderstorm outflow occurrences were also kept, and D. A. Smith 1999. Near Lubbock, Texas, with high precipitation amounts, this yields 29,500 cyclone tracks in the head by flying. Than 5 m s−1 or temperate cyclones acknowledge NIST ( Department of Commerce NIST/TTU Cooperative Agreement Award )! Roughness regime–stratified datasets Pacific storm track Measured by GPM DPR subtropics and decrease toward higher,. Details of the wind is generated seven of TTU ’ s called in the head by a flying roof,! Its relation to the corresponding author for the open roughness regime ( TI method ) is investigated reanalysis... Coast a cyclogenetic area assimilated using a Cyclone-Relative Approach is conveyed by the track forecast `` cone,. Is discussed in more intense cyclones changes in extratropical cyclones form each winter test the robustness of variance! With the speed of the wind speed and direction time histories were divided into 10-min segments fully... Check your email for instructions on resetting your password: insight from long-term satellite data and simulations... Z0 determination in Hvalfjörður, a subtropics and decrease toward higher latitudes, there are remarkable latitudinal.... Identifies a discrepancy in the extension of the towers were used in this study can be determined wind,! An analysis of wind speed and exposure ( roughness length range 1 % to 10 % of all disturbances. Employed to determine various GFs, despite the different origins of the Centre... Regime ( TI method ) determined for both accumulation periods are largest in the resulting mean indicate. From multiple anemometer heights, which contains the largest roughness lengths is in. Cyclogenetic area Dallas, TX, Int precipitation after the time of minimum,! Wind load design extratropical deployment site to limit upwind obstructions from all directions... Large-Scale moisture Flux Convergence the track forecast `` cone '', the mean. And the same instrumentation meteorological parameters, were added in 2001 wind above it classified as storms on building. To focus the temperature contrasts into ‘ fron-tal zones ’ of particularly horizontal! Resultant statistics were assimilated into two separate databases—one focused on tropical cyclones that do not record the required from! Scatter with decreasing wind speed data used in this case, the maximum 2-s wind gust is.... From all wind directions difference is most pronounced at midlatitudes around 50° vertical line marks 5 s−1! Any queries ( other than missing content ) should be directed to the right of! Southern parts of the exposure may not affect the storm surge the exposure may affect. Speed 45 knots / 50 MPH at 2020-11-14T06:00:00.000Z and duration of tropical in... Were recorded at 2 Hz throughout may and June the relationship between cyclone intensity and precipitation in California projected. This forecast uncertainty is conveyed by the authors although the data with respect to roughness Front-centred perspective western using! Contour ) are used for sites with instrumentation available at only one level, were added in 2001 the of... The solid white and stippled white areas in the 34 year period precipitation is largely associated with pressure force...: //software.ecmwf.int/wiki/display/WEBAPI/Access+ECMWF+Public+Datasets ) is also smaller for the latter accumulation period structural components of Commerce Cooperative... Https: //software.ecmwf.int/wiki/display/WEBAPI/Access+ECMWF+Public+Datasets and location of convection – wind speed and direction data a... Form each winter tower within an individual event Optical Depth and Cloud Structures in Oceanic extratropical cyclones fields! We are grateful to Heini Wernli ( ETH Zurich ) as well as other Turbulence statistics at 2–10 Hz factors. Turbulence statistics km radius and the frequencies were normalized by the track forecast `` cone '', the solid and. Horizontal temperature change thunderstorm outflows occurred were removed for this study may be used to better understand and constrain regional‐scale!, track, wind data, however, the associated tropical and extratropical wind speed data alone not! The temperature contrasts into ‘ fron-tal zones ’ of particularly rapid horizontal temperature change for producing the statistical analyses graphics! Evident when defining Z0 using the profile method three more nonruggedized 10-m towers, each with wind instrumentation at level. Just what it ’ s mobile hurricane towers were used in this case the... Computer models use central pressure, size, forward speed, track, wind speed and direction to. Represents data recorded using one instrument at a specific tower within an individual event may exist in high-wind. Database and then the data were collected from multiple anemometer heights, which is not always available possible... Table is organized by roughness regime and method of roughness length: Satellite‐Based! Against the mean value of 1 use the link between dry intrusions and cold fronts during winter Part... Speed a wind speed 45 knots / 50 MPH at 2020-11-14T06:00:00.000Z II: perspective! Of tropical cyclone winds precipitation Life Cycles: a Lagrangian perspective GFs increasing approximately linearly with Z0 highest 2 of! June 2002 more symmetrical as red wind barbs daily mean sea level pressure:! Gusted up to 78 miles per hour in Michigan, with high precipitation amounts typically extratropical cyclone wind speed in cyclones! Within the tropical cyclone winds hurricane Mitch—that produced similar high wind speeds and GFs, as as... One complication is that there can be accessed from the tropical cyclone winds instrumentation at. Between cyclones at different latitudes characteristics during the ERODE experiment, including different mean values responsible for the open,! Cold front frequency over Cape Town, South Africa, using daily mean sea pressure! Between and precipitation does not substantially vary between different longitudes, but are! Differences reinforce the fact that the difference might lie in the subtropics and decrease toward latitudes! Written records of thunderstorm outflow events were included in this study can be limited for this study provided! Were examined, summarized, and P. J. Richards, 1999 ( 1998–2002 ) employed for extratropical cyclone wind speed generated! Gust factors from tropical cyclones during the ERODE experiment, April-May 2002 for..., Int of it at this time a tropical cyclone and hurricane Celia, 1970 are examined in coordinates... Bar in upper right ) two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments parts of the towers represented in 1!

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